December 26th, 2003


[PER] Philosophy and psychotherapy: conflict or co-operation?

The long history of philosophy, its continued virulence and increasing popularity suggests that it is a response to deep human needs for understanding and for the creation of meaning.

The permeation of scepticism within the philosophical tradition indicates a reluctance to merely accept any specific meaning. Philosophical thought has sometimes created meta-narratives and sometimes engaged in critique of meta-narratives.

In particular, whether one sees philosophy and psychotherapy as conflictual or co-operative is likely to depend on one's attitude to the meaning milieux of psychotherapeutic theories. If the attitude is that any adopted theory is essentially true in its major aspects and that it has more rather than less universal applicability, then philosophy--in particular epistemology--is likely to be perceived as threatening and too much exposure experienced as an existential and theoretical shock.

This paper attempts to put psychotherapeutic theorising under epistemological scrutiny in ways which challenge essentialist approaches to psychotherapeutic theory and which suggest that unexamined essentialist theorising is likely to be epistemologically untenable.

I have met some resistance from psychotherapists to epistemological challenges and I suspect that a sense of defensiveness has resulted from a perception of threat. Philosophical investigations are not peripheral to psychotherapy but may be marginalised if perceived as threatening.

My view is that psychotherapy and philosophy could have similar and co-operative aims and I take as a fascinating challenge Wittgenstein's notion of 'philosophy as therapy'. It is apposite to state that this paper started life as background reading to a module on the taught element of a doctorate of psychotherapy course. There was no doubt as to the impact on psychotherapists of the challenges arising from a study of epistemology.

Geoff Heath, Philosophy and psychotherapy: conflict or co-operation?, International Journal of Psychotherapy Volume 7(1), March 2002, pp: 13-52.


[PER] Web Site Picks Year's Most Deeply Embedded Word

LOS ANGELES (Reuters, Dec 25, 2003) - A U.S. Web site specializing in language named what it called the top word, phrase and name of the year on Thursday, picking them all from the war in Iraq.

"Embedded," as in the reporters assigned to accompany military units during the war, beat out "blog" and "SARS" as the top word of 2003, Web site ( said.

"Embedded was the best word to distill the events of an extraordinary year into eight simple letters," Paul JJ Payack, president of, told Reuters.

Previous top words include 2000's "chad" (from the hanging squares of paper on Florida presidential ballots), 2001's "Ground Zero" (the site where the World Trade Center collapsed) and 2002's "misunderestimate" (a presidential slip of the tongue that became frequent comedy fodder).

"Shock-and-awe," the phrase the U.S. military used to describe the type of campaign it would wage in Iraq, topped other Iraq-related terms like "rush to war," "weapons of mass destruction" and "spider-hole" as the top phrase of 2003.

The name most on people's lips during the year was Saddam Hussein, the former Iraqi leader recently captured in a hole in the ground.

He beat out "Ahh-nold" (as in newly-elected California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and "W." (as in President Bush).

The site's lists, created by taking nominations from users around the world and then having them judged by "professional wordsmiths," take some liberties with Bush.

One of 2003's leading words is "Bushisms," to describe the president's oft-satirized verbal style. The site published a list of the president's top-five mispronunciations, including "new-cue-ler" (for nuclear) and "Anzar" (for Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar).

As for 2004, Payack said there was already an early contender. "'Mad cow' was on the list a few years ago, because of what was happening in the U.K. 'Mad cow' could be big next year."

Web Site Picks Year's Most Deeply Embedded Word, by Ben Berkowitz.


____________________[PRO] Scripting affective communication in web-based interaction systems

Scripting affective communication in web-based interaction systems [pdf, 30+]
Helmut Prendinger, Sylvain Descamps, Mitsuru Ishizuka


In this paper, we discuss scripting tools that aim at facilitating the design of Web-based interactions with animated characters capable of affective communication. Specifically, two systems are developed.

The SCREAM system is a scripting tool that enables authors to create emotionally and socially appropriate responses of animated characters. Content authors may design the mental make-up of a character by declaring a variety of parameters and behaviors relevant to affective communication and obtain quantified emotional reactions that can be input to an animation engine. While the default operations of a character's "mind" are based on psychological and sociological research, authors may easily modify and extend its rule set.

In order to facilitate high-level scripting and connectivity with other Web-based animated agent systems, the tool is written in a lightweight JAVA-based PROLOG system and JAVA.

Connectivity is demonstrated by interfacing SCREAM with our second system, MPML, an XML-style markup language that allows to control and coordinate the multi-modal appearance of synthetic characters. Affective communication with animated characters is illustrated by the implementation of a Web-based casino scenario.

Applied Artificial Intelligence Volume 16, Numbers 7-8 / August 01, 2002 Pages:519-553

SCREAM: Scripting Emotion-based Agent Minds [PDF] и другие интересные работы Helmut-а Prendinger-а.

[PER] nonwords database


хорошие всё слова... мне бы такие, когда я рисовал (в своё время) карты неведомых земель и пытался придумать для них неведомые же названия гор, рек, морей, городов...

но, может быть, кому-то и для другого пригодится :)

nonword database

358,534 штуки!



ТЭЖЭодин из экспонатов музея зубной пасты. я считаю, очень достойно представляющий россию в этой в основном мятно-ментоловой тусовке.

узнал много нового - про ТЭЖЭ, например. оказывается, в оригинале это был "Трест Жир-кость", который немедленно превратили в ТЖ, и потом в "благозвучное" Тэже (в этой связи немного сомнительная датировка экспоната 1900-м годом - неужели уже тогда любили играть в аббревиатуры?)

в поисках хоть чего-то про этот "тэжэ" наткулся на забавную статью некто В. Тренина: ПИЩЕ-ВКУСОВЫЕ ЖАНРЫ. в силу полной неудобоваримости адресации в этом совлите, я не знаю, где и когда эта статья опубликована - судя по всему, в начале 30-х. (кстати, очень богатый ресурс!)

в те годы писали так:

"Слово не может звучать в междупланетном пространстве.

Для того чтобы быть услышанным, слово должно иметь адрес: оно должно быть направлено к интеллекту или к эмоции слушателя."

кто бы спорил? зато каков вывод!

"Стандарты эмоционально действующих названий, созданные условиями капиталистической конкуренции, будут постепенно вытеснены при планомерном производстве материальными названиями, которые дают потребителю вместо экспрессивной зауми деловое сообщение о сорте и составных элементах продукта."

и ещё хорошо:

"Товары, имеющие вкусовое или наркотическое назначение, не могут быть переименованы с такой же легкостью, как улицы провинциальных городов".

очень познавательная статья.